National Cancer Institute dosimetry system for Nuclear Medicine (NCINM) Computer Program

Nuclear medicine is the second largest source of medical radiation exposure to the general population after computed tomography imaging. Imaging modalities utilizing nuclear medicine produce a more detailed view of internal structure and function and are most commonly used to diagnose diseases such as heart disease, Alzheimer’s and brain disorders. They are used to visualize tumors, abscesses due to infection or abnormalities in abdominal organs.

Non-invasive diagnostic and prognostic assay for early stage lung cancer

In the United States alone, one of four cancer deaths occur from lung cancer and there are over 8 million individuals considered to be at high-risk due to cigarette smoking and other behaviors. It's well known that early detection of cancer significantly improves survival of this disease, however a lack of lung cancer screenings and analysis precludes fast results at a low cost.

SLCO1B3 Genotyping to Predict a Survival Prognosis of Prostate Cancer

Steroid hormones have been implicated to play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer. Polymorphisms in the genes that code for enzymes, or hormones involved in androgen regulatory pathway, reportedly influence risk for developing prostate cancer. Since many membrane transporters are modulators of steroid hormones absorption and tissue distribution, genetic polymorphisms in genes encoding these transporters may account for the risk of prostate cancer and the predicting of survival.

Mobile Software for Substance Abuse Interventions and Behavioral Modification

Researchers at the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) have developed software that provides personalized feedback for treating drug dependence, alcoholism, smoking cessation, pain management, and associated risky behaviors. The tool is designed for both healthcare providers at the point-of-care and for self-help. Many people who could benefit from treatment do not receive it because of its low availability and high cost.

A Dendritic Cell Vaccine to Immunize Cancer Patients Against Mutated Neoantigens Expressed by the Autologous Cancer

Vaccines against non-viral cancers target mainly differentiation antigens, cancer testis antigens, and overexpressed antigens.  One common feature to these antigens is their presence in central immunological tolerance. Using these vaccines, T cells underwent depletion of high avidity clones directed against such antigens. This depletion can cause the loss of T cells bearing high affinity T cell receptors (TCRs) for their cognate antigens which have superior cytotoxic capacity, longer persistence in the tumor microenvironment, and decreased susceptibility to immune suppression.

Bivalent, Dual Specific Anti-CD22 Anti-CD19 Chimeric Antigen Receptors (CARs)

Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) combine an antibody-based binding domain (and single chain fragment variable region, scFv) with T cell receptor signaling domains (CD3 zeta with a costimulatory domain, typically CD28 or 41BB). When T cells express CARs, they are activated in a major histocompatibility complex- (MHC) independent manner to kill tumor cells expressing the target to which the scFv binds.  CAR T cells targeting the B cell antigen CD19 have resulted in remissions in 60-80% of patients with pre-B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL).

Chimeric Antigen Receptors to CD22 for Treating Hematological Cancers

Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are hybrid proteins consisting of an antibody binding fragment fused to protein signaling domains that cause T-cells which express the CAR to become cytotoxic.  Once activated, these cytotoxic T-cells can selectively eliminate the cells which they recognize via the antibody binding fragment of the CAR.  Thus, by engineering a T-cell to express a CAR that is specific for a certain cell surface protein, it is possible to selectively target those cells for destruction.  This promising new therapeutic approach is known as adoptive cell therapy.

Methods and Compositions for Treating Genetically Linked Diseases of the Eye

X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) is an inherited, monogenetic ocular disease caused by mutations in the retinoschisin (RS1) gene, resulting in the development of cystic cavities throughout the retina and leading to juvenile macular degeneration. Approximately 1:15,000 males in the US are affected, classifying the condition as an orphan indication.