Multimeric Protein Toxins to Target Cells Having Multiple Identifying Characteristics

This technology relates to multimeric bacterial protein toxins which can be used to specifically target cells. Specifically, this is a modified recombinant anthrax toxin protective antigen (PrAg) that has been modified in several ways. First, the PrAg can be activated both by a metalloproteinase (MMP) and by urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA). Second, the native PrAg lethal factor (LF) binding site has been modified so that only a modified PrAg comprising two different monomers can bind anthrax LF.

Method for the Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis

The invention relates to the discovery that humanized antibodies to the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) such as (daclizumab) are effective in treating multiple sclerosis (MS). In particular, it has been discovered that patients who have failed to respond to therapy with interferon-beta show dramatic improvement when treated with daclizumab, with patients showing both a reduction in the total number of lesions and cessation of appearance of new lesions during the treatment period. Daclizumab is effective both in combination with interferon-beta and alone.

Factors That Bind Intestinal Toxins

This invention discloses and covers polyphenolic compounds that will bind bacterial toxins, methods for the treatment of such infections, specifically Stx-1 toxins from STEC strains of E. coli.

Bacterial infections not only cause disease by their presence but also upon the release of toxins. The common enteric bacteria, E. coli O157:H7 releases such toxins (Stx-1) upon treatment with antibiotics. These toxins, when released into the lumen of the intestinal tract, will cause cellular damage thus increasing the severity of the infection.

Peptides for Treatment of Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha Mediated Inflammatory Disease

Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is a multifunctional cytokine that mediates inflammation, immune regulation, and cellular proliferation. This cytokine is converted to its active form by TNF-alpha converting enzyme (TACE). Pathological increases in TNF-alpha activity have been associated with a wide variety of inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer. Inhibiting the conversion of TNF-alpha to its active form by inhibiting TACE represents a potential treatment for these diseases.

Treatment of Immune-mediated Brain Swelling with Combined Anti-LFA1/VLA4 Therapy

This technology includes a therapeutic approach to prevent secondary edema after cerebrovascular hemorrhage. Using an animal model, we found that edema is triggered by massive extravasation of myelomonocytic cells from the blood into the brain in response to hemorrhaging vessels. Administration of anti-LFA1 and anti-VLA4 antibodies resulted in an inhibition of extravasation of the myelomonocytic cells. This single dose treatment prevented secondary edema and markedly improved functional outcomes if administered within the first six hours following cerebrovascular hemorrhage.

Development of a polyclonal antibody that detects phosphorylated glutamate receptor 1 protein (GluA1 pS567)

This invention includes the generation and use of polyclonal antibodies that specifically recognize the glutamate receptor 1 protein that has been phosphorylated at Serine 567 (GluA1 pS567). Glutamate receptors are ligand-gated ion channels and are the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter receptor type in humans. A peptide sequence on the gene was selected surrounding the phosphorylation site. This peptide was then generated and injected into rabbits to create an immune response. Serum was then collected from the rabbit and the antibodies were affinity purified.

Development of monoclonal antibodies that detect specific forms of neurophysin bound to either vasopressin or oxytocin

This invention includes the generation and use of monoclonal antibodies that specifically recognize either arginine vasopressin (AVP) or oxytocin (OT) when bound to neurophysins. The neurophysins (NPs) are a family of proteins that bind to hormones as they are released from the hypothalamus and make their way to the pituitary gland. Monoclonal antibodies were generated that specifically recognize vasopressin bound to a neurophysin (NP-AVP) or oxytocin bound to a neurophysin (NP-OT). Seven monoclonal antibodies were characterized.

Development of a Polyclonal Antibody for SAP102 and a Polyclonal Antibody for mGluR7 PS862

This invention includes the generation and use of a polyclonal antibody for synapse-associated protein 102 (SAP102) and a polyclonal antibody that binds to mGluR7 when phosphorylated at Serine 862. Peptides of the sites were generated and injected into rabbits to create an immune response. Serum was collected from the rabbits that was then affinity purified. The specificity of the resulting polyclonal antibodies was then determined using biochemical techniques.