Pain Control by the Selective Local Ablation of Nociceptive Neurons

The vanilloid receptor (VR) is a cation channel predominantly expressed on the peripheral processes and perikarya of nociceptive primary afferent neurons. Previous studies have shown that activation of the peripheral receptors by agonists such as capsaicin from hot peppers, or the much more potent resiniferatoxin, produces acute pain sensation which may be followed by desensitization. These inventors discovered that administration of VR agonists in the vicinity of neuronal cell bodies expressing the VR receptor can actually destroy those cells.

Cell Expansion System For Use In Neural Transplantation

Cell transplantation therapy typically involves transplanting primary cells or immortalized cells into patients. The promising but still inconsistent data stemming from those clinical trials using primary cells in Parkinson's disease are believed to be due to an insufficient number, function and uniformity of the transplanted cells. In an effort to overcome these problems an improved method for isolating, growing and differentiating precursor cells into dopaminergic neurons has been developed.

Virally Mediated Gene Therapy For The Control Of Chronic Or Persistent Pain

Current treatments for pain, especially chronic pain, are only partially effective and can eventually involve procedures that are invasive or associated with unacceptable side effects. In vivo gene transfer could be used to directly modulate pain and provide a long-term pain control. This invention describes a method of using an adenovirus or an adeno-associated virus that are genetically engineered to deliver DNA encoded peptides or proteins to neurons involved in the transmission of pain.

Assay for Predicting the Time of Onset of Niemann-Pick Disease Type C (NPC)

Niemann-Pick Disease, type C (NPC) is a rare, autosomal recessive, neurodegenerative disease. Approximately 95% of patients with NPC have mutations in NPC1, a gene implicated in intracellular cholesterol trafficking. Mutation of NPC1 causes intracellular accumulation of unesterified cholesterol in late endosomal/lysosomal structures and marked accumulation of glycosphingolipids, especially in neuronal tissue. Thus, NPC patients generally present with hepatosplenomegaly (enlargement of liver and spleen) and neurological degeneration.

A Rapid Ultrasensitive Assay for Detecting Prions Based on the Seeded Polymerization of Recombinant Normal Prion Protein (rPrP-sen)

Prion diseases are neurodegenerative diseases of great public concern as humans may either develop disease spontaneously or, more rarely, due to mutations in their prion protein gene or exposures to external sources of infection. Prion disease is caused by the accumulation in the nervous system of abnormal aggregates of prion protein. This technology enables rapid, economical, and ultrasensitive detection of disease-associated forms of prion protein.

A New Class of Immunomodulatory Drugs for Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease caused by activated autoimmune T lymphocytes in patients resulting in inflammatory demyelination in the central nervous system. Current treatments are focused on functional control of these activated autoimmune T cells, but these treatments are non-specific T cell inhibitors and have serious, sometimes fatal side effects. A specific therapy aimed at eliminating these autoimmune T cells through restimulation-induced cell death (RICD) could cure the disease and overcome the fatal side effects of current therapies.

2,2'-Bipyridyl, a Ferrous Chelator, Prevents Vasospasm in a Primate Model of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) occurs in 28,000 people per year in North America. Symptomatic vasospasm occurs in the majority of individuals suffering SAH and is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in patients reaching neurological care. Specifically, vasospasm causes cerebral ischemia or stroke, and the prevention of vasospasm could prevent stroke and death as well as allow physicians more freedom in scheduling surgery when the operative risks are lower.

Diffusion Through Skull as Route of Delivery for Treatment of Brain Injury and Disease

Traumatic Brain injury (TBI) often results from head impact and is a major cause of death and disability. Brain injuries vary in severity and can be associated with hemorrhaging, swelling, inflammation, and death of brain tissue. Inventors at NINDS developed a novel approach to treating brain injuries that involves transcranial application of small molecules.

SIRT2 Inhibitors as Novel Therapeutics for Myocardial Infarction and Ischemic Stroke and to Prevent Necrosis

Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) inhibitors to reduce necrosis and, thereby, as novel therapeutics to treat ischemic stroke and myocardial infarction. Accumulating evidence indicates that programmed necrosis plays a critical role in cell death during ischemia-reperfusion. NIH investigators have shown that the NAD-dependent deacetylase SIRT2 binds constitutively to receptor-interacting protein 3 (RIP3) and that deletion or knockdown of SIRT2 prevents formation of the RIP1-RIP3 complex in mice.