Novel Inactivated Zika Vaccine Candidate Based on Purified Wild-type Zika Virus — for Zika Vaccine and Diagnostic Assay Development

Zika virus (ZIKV) spreads to people primarily through bite by infected Aedes mosquitoes. ZIKV infection during pregnancy can cause stillbirths or affect the fetus by causing serious birth defects, such as microcephaly and other brain defects. Although uncommon, adults with ZIKV can also develop Guillain-Barre syndrome and other neurological disorders. According to the World Health Organization’s July 2019 report, a total of 87 countries and territories have had evidence of mosquito-borne transmission of ZIKV.

SARS-CoV-2 Iinfection of Human Lung Epithelial Cells Triggers a Cell-Mediated Acute Fibrin Fibrosis

Scientists at NIAID have developed a method of treatment for virus-induced lung fibrosis using nebulized thrombin inhibitors. Since March 2020, the WHO estimates that 564 million people have been infected with SARS-CoV-2 world-wide. Lung fibrosis is a major factor associated with SARS-CoV-2 infections and can contribute to mortality. Additionally, severe SARS-CoV-2 cases can result in long-term pulmonary disease due to lung fibrosis. At present, attempts to treat lung fibrosis developed during a SARS-CoV-2 infection using intravenous heparin have been unsuccessful.

Codon Deoptimized (CD) Poliovirus Seed Strains for Use in an Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine

Polio is a disabling and potentially fatal infectious disease. Sabin Oral Poliovirus Vaccine (OPV) and Salk Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine (IPV) have been crucial in the global poliovirus eradication efforts and substantial decrease in disease incidence rates. However, recent findings showed that Sabin OPV strains, due to their genetic instability, may revert to virulence and spread among communities, resulting in circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV). Salk IPV, which is made by inactivating live poliovirus,

Transgenic Mice Expressing CNO-sensitive Gq- or Gs-coupled Designer Receptors Selectively in Pancreatic Beta Cells

Impaired functioning of pancreatic beta cells is a key hallmark of type 2 diabetes. Beta cell function is modulated by the actions of different classes of heterotrimeric G proteins. The functional consequences of activating specific beta cell G protein signaling pathways in vivo are not well understood at present, primarily due to the fact that beta cell G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are also expressed by many other tissues.

Triazole Derivatives of 4,7-disubstituted 2 naphthoic acid (PPTN) as P2Y14 Receptor Antagonists

The Molecular Recognition Section of NIDDK announces the availability of a novel triazole-based probes, structures which act as antagonists at human P2Y14 receptors. Although the physiologic functions of this receptor remain undefined, recently it has been strongly implicated in immune and inflammatory responses. Prior work with a 4,7-disubstituted 2 naphthoic acid derivative (PPTN) established the ability to inhibit chemotaxis of human neutrophils in the lung and kidney.

Novel Methods for Reducing Inflammation and Treating Diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's Disease

Microglia activation leads to inflammation mediated dopaminergic degeneration in the brain of patients with Parkinson and Alzheimer's Disease. Thus Identification of drugs that reduce microglia activation could prevent or reverse neuronal degeneration in these diseases and other degenerative CNS disorders.

Viral Entry or Replication Inhibitors

The Tec family of tyrosine kinases, consisting of five family members Tec, Btk, Itk, Rlk, and BMX, are key regulators of signaling pathways of T lymphocytes. Many existing antiviral therapies rely on inhibition of viral replication, which leads to emergence or selection of resistant viruses. The current technology provides an alternative method for prevention or treatment of viral infection through administration of a Tec tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Such inhibitors can be siRNA, small chemical compounds, antisense or antibody.

Agonist Epitopes for Renal Cell Carcinoma

Approximately 30,000 patients are diagnosed with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) each year in the United States, and an estimated 12,000 patients die of this disease. Most patients are diagnosed with advanced local disease or metastatic disease. Metastatic RCC carries a poor prognosis with median survivals in the range of 10-12 months. Drugs that inhibit VEGF receptor tyrosine kinases such as Sorafenib and Sunitinib have recently been approved by the FDA to treat metastatic RCC.