Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a major global health challenge despite the advancement made in development of effective antiretrovirals (ARVs). ARVs are effective at limiting replication and spread of the virus, and progression to acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, ARVs often lead to emergence of drug-resistant virus strains insensitive to treatment and with toxic effects following long-term usage.
New Heterocyclic Scaffold-Based Inhibitors of the Polo-Box Domain of Polo-like Kinase 1 for the Treatment of Cancer
Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1), a member of the Polo-like kinase family, plays a critical role in regulating mitosis and cell cycle progression. Aberrant expression of Plk1 has been observed in a variety of human cancers, and it is known to be associated with tumorigenesis as well as poor prognosis in cancer patients. Unlike normal cells, some cancer cells are dependent on augmented Plk1 levels to remain viable and are killed when Plk1 function is attenuated.
Tissues samples collected during medical procedures, such as biopsies, are used to diagnose a wide variety of diseases. Before diagnosis, patient samples are typically processed by fixation and paraffin embedding. This fixation/embedding process is used to preserve tissue morphology and histology for subsequent evaluation. Unfortunately, most fixative agents can damage or destroy nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) and damage proteins during the fixation process, thereby potentially impairing diagnostic assessment of tissue.
The Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGF-ß) ligands (i.e., TGF-ß1, -ß2, -ß3) are key regulatory proteins in animal physiology. Disruption of normal TGF-ß signaling is associated with many diseases from cancer to fibrosis. In mice and humans, TGF-ß activates TGF-ß receptors (e.g., TGFBR1), which activates SMAD proteins that alter gene expression and contribute to tumorigenesis. Reliable animal models are essential for the study of TGF-ß signaling.