Methods for Producing Stem Cell-Like Memory T Cells for Use in T Cell-Based Immunotherapies

T cells currently employed for T cell-based immunotherapies are often senescent, terminally differentiated cells with poor proliferative and survival capacity. Recently, however, scientists at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) identified and characterized a new human memory T cell population with stem cell-like properties. Since these T cells have limited quantities in vivo, the scientists have developed methods by which high numbers of these cells can be generated ex vivo for use in T cell-based immunotherapies.

Lymphatic Filariasis Biomarkers for Detection and Surveillance

Lymphatic filariasis (elephantiasis; LF) is a neglected tropical disease that affects over 120 million people throughout the tropics and sub­tropics of Asia, Africa, the Western Pacific, and parts of the Caribbean and South America. LF results from infection with the filarial parasites Wuchereria bancrofti or Brugia malayi. Current methods of confirming active infection by W. bancrofti or B. malayi include microscopy and immunoassays using serum/plasma extracted from the patient.

SARS-CoV-2 Iinfection of Human Lung Epithelial Cells Triggers a Cell-Mediated Acute Fibrin Fibrosis

Scientists at NIAID have developed a method of treatment for virus-induced lung fibrosis using nebulized thrombin inhibitors. Since March 2020, the WHO estimates that 564 million people have been infected with SARS-CoV-2 world-wide. Lung fibrosis is a major factor associated with SARS-CoV-2 infections and can contribute to mortality. Additionally, severe SARS-CoV-2 cases can result in long-term pulmonary disease due to lung fibrosis. At present, attempts to treat lung fibrosis developed during a SARS-CoV-2 infection using intravenous heparin have been unsuccessful.

Human lgA Monoclonal Antibody that Targets a Conserved Site on the Plasmodium Falciparum Circumsporozoite Protein

Scientists at NIAID have isolated MAD2-6, an IgA antibody active against Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites, the infectious agent of malaria. In 2019, the majority of the 229 million cases resulted from P. falciparum infections. Because P. falciparum has a complex lifecycle during human infection, most advanced malaria vaccine candidates and current chemoprophylaxis drugs can confer only partial, short-term protection in malaria-endemic areas. Thus, the MAD2-6 antibody could be used alone or in combination with current technology.

Monoclonal Antibodies to HIV-1 Vpr

Available for licensing are monoclonal antibodies against HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) and the respective hybridoma cell lines expressing the same. The antibodies provide a means for detecting HIV-1 Vpr. Currently, the mechanism of HIV pathogenesis believed to involve viral replication inside immune cells and other cells. At present, there are no clinical assays for detecting HIV-1 Vpr. Vpr circulates at detectable levels in the blood and is likely derived from degraded virions or released from infected cells. Vpr facilitates viral replication and disrupt normal cell function.

Anti-Plasmodium Compositions and Methods of Use

This invention describes methods and compositions of peptides that inhibit the binding of Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) to erythrocytes. Malarial parasites enter the red blood cell through several erythrocyte receptors, each being specific for a given species of Plasmodia. For P. falciparum, the erythrocyte binding antigen (EBA-175) is the ligand of the plasmodia merozoites that interacts with the receptor glycophorin A on the surface of red blood cells.

Human T Cell Line Chronically Infected With HIV

A stable line of human T cells (ACH-2) was developed in which cells infected chronically with the AIDS virus (HIV) remained nonproductive prior to exposure to phorbol esters or human cytokines. This situation mimics the latent state of HIV and the development of AIDS in humans and indicates that the full-blown disease may be triggered by cellular-derived substances (e.g., cytokines). This is the first description of such a cell line.

Attenuated Human Parainfluenza Virus (PIV) for Use as Live, Attenuated Vaccines and as Vector Vaccines

The identified technologies describe self-replicating infectious recombinant paramyxoviruses with one or more attenuating mutations, such as a separate variant polynucleotide encoding a P protein and a separate monocistronic polynucleotide encoding a V protein, or at least one temperature sensitive mutation and one non-temperature sensitive mutation. Compositions and methods for recovering, making and using the infectious, recombinant paramyxoviruses as described are also included (e.g. recombinant human parainfluenza virus type 2 (HPIV2)).

Method of Diagnosing Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis

The invention can be used to develop tests that are much more rapid than conventional tests for determining drug resistance. It relates to the discovery that a putative gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb) with no previously identified function is responsible for the ability of the bacteria to activate a class of second line thioamide drugs used for MTb infections. The gene, termed "etaA", codes for the synthesis of a monooxygenase, the enzyme responsible for the oxidative activation of the drugs.