Methods for Using Modulators of Extracellular Adenosine or an Adenosine Receptor To Enhance Immune Response and Inflammation

Local inflammation processes are crucially important in the host defense against pathogens and for successful immunization because proinflammatory cytokines are necessary for initiation and propagation of an immune response. However, normal inflammatory responses are eventually terminated by physiological termination mechanisms, thereby limiting the strength and duration of immune responses, especially to weak antigens. The inventors have shown that adenosine A2a and A3a receptors play a critical role in down-regulation of inflammation in vivo.

Functional Brain Region-Specific Neural Spheroids for Modeling Neurological Diseases and Therapeutics Screening

3D spheroids have emerged as powerful drug discovery tools given their high-throughput screening (HTS) compatibility. The present invention presents a method for generating functional neural spheroids with differentiated human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived neurons and astrocytes at cell type compositions mimicking specific regions of the human brain.

Stable SVG Cell Lines for Studying JCV Infection and Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

This invention relates to the derivation of two stable cell lines, SVG5F4 and SVG1OB1, which can be used to study JC-virus infection. SVG cells are a heterogeneous population of immortalized human fetal glial cells, which express SV40 large T antigen. They are capable of supporting JC virus infection; however, the culture is mixed and changes over time. The two SV40-derived cell lines described here are stable over many passages.

Compounds and Methods for Blocking Transmission of Malarial Parasites

Malaria continues to be a life-threatening disease, causing roughly 241 million cases and an estimated 627,000 deaths in 2020, mostly among African children, although in 2020 nearly half of the world’s population was at risk of malaria. There is a big financial burden for antimalarial treatment; direct costs (for example, illness, treatment, premature death) have been estimated to be at least US $12 billion per year and the cost in lost economic growth is many times more than that.

Mononegavirales Vectors Expressing Chimeric Antigens

Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) continues to be the leading viral cause of severe acute lower respiratory tract disease in infants and children worldwide, and also is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. A licensed vaccine or antiviral drug suitable for routine use remains unavailable. This invention relates to the use of murine pneumonia virus (MPV—previously known as pneumonia virus of mice, PVM—of family Pneumovirida e) as a vaccine vector expressing the RSV fusion protein F, the most important protective antigen of RSV.

Hybridomas to Human Immunoglobulins for SARS-CoV-2 Diagnostics and Additional Indications

Immunoglobulins play a key role in the immune system. CDC has developed and tested hybridoma cell lines (monoclonal antibody (mAb) clones) for human IgG and other immunoglobulins. The mAbs generated from those hybridomas could be used as a reagent (second Ab) of anti-human immunoglobins in a diagnostic assay for SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2), the virus that causes COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) and other assays that detect antigen specific antibodies from human sera.

Improved Live-Attenuated Vaccine for Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Bearing Codon-Pair Deoptimized NS1, NS2, N, P, M and SH Genes and Additional Point Mutations in the P Gene

RSV is the most important viral agent of severe respiratory disease in infants and young children worldwide and also causes substantial morbidity and mortality in older adults. RSV is estimated to cause more than 33 million lower respiratory tract illnesses, three million hospitalizations, and nearly 200,000 childhood deaths worldwide annually, with many deaths occurring in developing countries. However, despite the prevalence of RSV and the dangers associated with infection, no RSV vaccine has been successfully developed to date.

Stable Human Cell Lines Expressing Flavivirus Virus-Like Particles (VLPs) for Vaccine, Biologics, and Diagnostic Development

Flaviviruses such as Zika virus, dengue virus, West Nile virus, yellow fever virus, and Japanese encephalitis virus cause widespread illness and death throughout the world. Typically, flaviviruses get transmitted through the bite of infected mosquitoes and ticks.

Epstein-Barr Virus Antibody That Blocks Fusion And Neutralizes Virus Infection of B Cells

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the most common cause of infectious mononucleosis and is associated with nearly 200,000 cancers and 140,000 deaths each year. EBV-associated cancers include Hodgkin's lymphoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, Burkitt B cell lymphoma, and EBV post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease. The latent reservoir for EBV in the body is the B lymphocyte. Thus, blocking B cell infection is important for reducing EBV-related disease.

Simian T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Strain Type 3 (STLV-3) Subtype D Variant, a Highly Divergent STLV-3, for Development of Diagnostics, Therapeutics, Vaccines and Research Tools

Simian T-cell lymphotropic viruses (STLV) are nonhuman primate retroviruses closely related to the human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV). Types I, II, and III of HTLV have been found in humans and are believed to have originated from cross-species transmission of STLV from infected nonhuman primates. The HTLV viruses are known to cause leukemia, lymphoma, and neurological disorders.