Nanobodies Neutralizing Lassa Virus

Lassa Hemorrhagic Fever (LHF) is a serious disease caused by infection with Lassa virus (LASV) – highly prevalent in West Africa and spreading globally. LASV is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates, annually infecting 100,000 to 300,000 individuals and causing 5,000 deaths. Developing prophylactics and treatment for LASV is difficult due to challenges in inducing neutralizing antibodies and producing their target, the LASV glycoprotein trimer (GPC).

Combination of recombinant IL-7 with Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T Cells Targeting Glypican-3 (GPC3) for the Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer. standard treatment for HCC is not suitable for a large proportion of liver cancer patients. As a result, alternative treatments are needed. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy is a promising alternative approach selectively targets targeting tumors via tumor-specific antigens. However, to date, no effective CAR T cell therapy exists for HCC. 

Biomarker Analysis Software for High-Throughput Diagnostic Multiplex Data

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid bilayer-enclosed particles that are released from cells. EVs may contain proteins derived from their cells of origin with the potential as diagnostic biomarkers indicating the state of the cells when released. However, due to their small size (50-1000nm), the methods currently used to phenotype EVs have limited sensitivity and scale. A need exists for development of novel technologies improving EV detection and phenotyping.

Enhanced Antigen Reactivity of Immune Cells Expressing a Mutant Non-Signaling CD3 Zeta Chain

Immunotherapy is a cutting-edge new category of treatment that aims to harness and, in some cases, modify the patient’s own immune cells to improve their ability to cure diseases. It can be an effective approach for a variety of conditions, ranging from cancer to inflammatory diseases.  However, a number of obstacles to the overall success of immunotherapy still exist.  For example, reactivity against a target antigen can be attenuated or the lifespan of the “modified” immune cells can be too short.

Time Efficient Multi-Pulsed Field Gradient (mPFG) MRI Without Concomitant Gradient Field Artifacts

Measuring and mapping nervous tissue microstructure noninvasively is a long sought-after goal in neuroscience. Clinically, several neuropathologies such as cancer and stroke, are associated with changes in tissue microstructure. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), which models diffusion anisotropy, is an ideal imaging modality to elucidate these changes. However, DTI provides a mean diffusion tensor averaged over the entire MRI voxel. This has limitations when applied to heterogeneous neural tissue.

Mouse Lines with Fluorescently Labelled Membrane Proteins Regulating Cellular Motility and Membrane Trafficking

Cell motility and membrane trafficking play important roles in regulating cell division, cell migration, cell death and autophagy. Impairment of these processes can result in enhanced cell proliferation and survival and increased migration and invasion leading to cancer. Several proteins involved in cell motility and membrane trafficking have been shown to be dysregulated in various cancers. There is therefore a need for development of animal models for studying the roles of these proteins in cancer and their responses to drug treatment in vivo.

Chimeric Antigen Receptors (CAR)-T Cells that Target the Non-Shed Portion of Mesothelin as a Therapeutic Agent

Mesothelin (MSLN) is an excellent target for antibody-based therapies of cancer because of its high expression in many malignancies but lack of expression on essential normal tissues. Unfortunately, a large fragment of MSLN is shed from cancer cells, causing the currently available anti-MSLN antibodies (and immunoconjugates thereof) which bind to the shed portion of MSLN to quickly lose their therapeutic effectiveness over time. Indeed, the shed portion of MSLN can act as a decoy for these antibodies, further limiting them from reaching and destroying tumor cells.

Molecular Nanotags for Detection of Single Molecules

Biological nanoparticles, like extracellular vesicles (EVs), possess unique biological characteristics making them attractive therapeutic agents, targets, or disease biomarkers. However, their use is hindered by the lack of tools available to accurately detect, sort, and analyze. Flow cytometers are used to sort and study individual cells. But, they are unable to detect and sort nanomaterials smaller than 200 nanometers with single epitope sensitivity.

Optical Configuration Methods for Spectral Scatter Flow Cytometry

Multi-parameter flow cytometry has been extensively used in multiple disciplines of biological discoveries, including immunology and cancer research. However, the disadvantage of traditional flow cytometry platforms using excitation lasers and fluorescence detectors is spectral overlap when using multiple dyes on the same biological sample. Metaethical compensation of spectral overlap could only be effective to a certain degree. Mass cytometry is advantageous compared to flow cytometry but is pricey and requires highly skilled operators. 

Exo-Clean Technology for Purifying Extracellular Vesicle Preparations from Contaminants

Extracellular Vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles, are nanometer-sized membranous vesicles that can carry different types of cargos, such as proteins, nucleic acids and metabolites. EVs are produced and released by most cell types. They act as biological mediators for intercellular communication via delivery of their cargos. This unique ability spurred translational research interest for targeted delivery of therapeutic molecules to treat a wide range of diseases. EVs also contain interesting information of their specific cellular origin.