Hypoxia is a characteristic of many solid tumors resulting from accelerated cellular proliferation and inadequate vascularization. HIF-1 is a transcription factor critical for maintaining cellular homeostasis in, and adaptively responding to, low oxygen environments. HIF-1 becomes activated through binding to the transcriptional co-activator protein p300. Disruption of the HIF-1/p300 interaction could potentially modulate HIF-1 activity.
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) accounts for more than 90% of pancreatic cancer cases, and it is one of the most aggressive malignancies with a 5-year survival rate of 6%. The high mortality rate caused by PDA is primarily from the lack of early diagnosis – it is often asymptomatic in early stages – and a poor response to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. One of the major immune cell types present in the PDA microenvironment is a subset of macrophages commonly termed tumor-associated macrophages (TAM).
The National Cancer Institute''s Laboratory of Cell Biology is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize bodipy conjugated tyrosine kinase inhibitors that are currently used in the clinic for the treatment of CML or gastric cancers. We are also interested in evaluating third generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor derivatives as modulators of ABC drug transporters to improve the efficiency of chemotherapy in animal (mouse) model system.
Several novel tropolone derivatives have been identified that inhibit HIV-1 RNase H function and have potential for anti-viral activity due to reduced cellular toxicity. Inhibiting RNase H function is a potential treatment for many viral infections, since RNase H function is essential for viral replication for many pathogenic retroviruses such as HIV-1 and HIV-2. Although many hydroxytropolone compounds are potent RNase H inhibitors biding at the enzymatic active site, they are limited as therapeutic candidates by their toxicity in mammalian cells. The toxicity thought to be a result of
Cancer cells can upregulate autophagy – cell destruction – as a response to chemotherapy. Investigators in Dr. Melvin DePamphilis’ laboratory at the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) have shown that compounds identified by screening a library of compounds blocks autophagy in some cancer cells (e.g., melanoma) but are not toxic to normal cells. Cancer cells with mutations in the BRAF oncogene are especially dependent on autophagy. Treatment of cancer cells with the BRAF mutation can increase the efficacy of chemotherapy.
The retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE) make up a polarized monolayer in the vertebrate eye that separates the neural retina from the choroid, and performs a crucial role in retinal physiology by forming a blood-retinal barrier and closely interacting with photoreceptors to maintain visual function. Many ophthalmic diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration, are associated with a degeneration or deterioration of the RPE.