Calcium is a key element in the regulation of many cellular processes, including muscle contraction, hormone excretion from gland cells, neurotransmitter release from nerve synapses, and the regulation of cellular metabolism. Elevated calcium levels are found in a number of diseases.
The present invention relates to chromophoric or fluorescent dye calcium indicators that are superior for measurement of high concentrations of calcium ions due to their high dissociation constants. As a result of the high calcium ion dissociation constants, the perturbation resulting from introducing the indicator into the cell is greatly reduced. These calcium ion indicators can be measured by various techniques including 19F NMR spectroscopy, flow cytometry, and quantitative fluorescence techniques, and are useful for measuring calcium levels within the cytosol or within cellular organelles.
Research tool for quantifying intracellular calcium concentrations.